Monday, June 25, 2012

Garrett's Views of the Piedmont Chautauqua

Students and friends alike have often asked me how I became interested in history.   Was it a special teacher?   A family friend?   Perhaps a grandparent was a history buff and ignited this flame that basically rules my life these days…….

Actually….it’s a combination of many things including… members sharing stories, old buildings on a family farm, books on the Civil War given to me as a child and hearing this man on local television discuss Atlanta’s rich history:

The man to the left is Franklin Garrett...the only official historian the city of Atlanta has known. Garrett spent 28 years as the historian of the Coca Cola Company and researched various aspects of Atlanta's history as well during that time.

His book….Atlanta and Its Environs is one of my most favorite go-to resources regarding the history of the metro area and Douglas County and Douglasville does have a mention here and there.
During the 1880s one of the largest events held in Douglas County and perhaps never equaled since  happened to be the Piedmont Chautauqua.   I’ve written about it before here.
Franklin Garrett included a section about the Chautauqua in his book mainly centering on Henry W. Grady, editor of the Constitituion and cheerleader for the New South and Marion C. Kiser, Grady’s partner in the Chautauqua.    Grady is pictured below....

 Mr. Garrett provides an interesting view of the Chautauqua as well as a humorous remembrance from the opening remarks of Mr. Kiser. Here's what he had to say:

During the summer of 1888,…..[Henry W. Grady…] was engrossed is plans for the Piedmont Chautauqua….

The institution of the Chautauqua had attained great popularity in the United States since 1874, when the first Chautauqua Institution was founded on the shores of Lake Chautauqua, New York, to promote the training of Sunday school teachers.  Since then some 42 other Chautauquas had been organized in various parts of the country.
The Piedmont Chautauqua patterned after the original, was largely the inspiration of Grady.   In March, 1888, he called a meeting to explain the movement to a group of Atlantans.
A plan was evolved for asking 200 citizens to subscribe $100 each toward the undertaking, after which the Piedmont Chautauqua was incorporated, with Marion C. Kiser, wealthy wholesale shoe and dry goods merchant as president, and Grady as vice president.

The site selected for the new enterprise was the little resort town on the Georgia Pacific Railroad, then known as Salt Springs, though now and for many years past it has been called Lithia Springs.   A spring-fed stream offered possibilities for an artificial lake and other attractions. 
Salt Springs already had one resort hotel, advertised as “the most sumptuous summer hotel in the South,” and the promoters of the Chautauqua proposed to erect two smaller hotels.  In addition, plans called for a classroom building, a restaurant accommodating one thousand persons, and a tabernacle seating seven thousand.
Yes….you read that right.   Seven thousand people.
Lots for summer cottages were staked out and offered for sale, space was provided for various outdoor sports, and the stream was dammed to provide  boating and swimming facilities.  

The Chautauqua grounds are seen in the picture below......

The Georgia Pacific promised to run special trains, making the 21-mile run from Atlanta to the grounds, three miles west of Austell, in 35 minutes.

The Chautauqua announced that it would have instructors in Bible, English, foreign languages, the natural sciences, the fine arts, physical education, and ‘every chair of a first-class university’.   The entire curriculum cost $10.  Any single department was open for a $5 fee.
Grady realized that the success of the Chautauqua hinged, not upon the relatively small number expected to register for classes, but upon the size of the crowds  coming out for the special attractions at night and for Sunday sermons.
A number of celebrities were signed up for the program.  Congressman William McKinley and Roger Q. Mills came down from Washington to give Georgians contrasting views on the tariff, then a particularly warm issue.  Dr. Talmadge delivered his lecture on “The Bright Side of Things”; and Thomas Nelson Page gave a reading of his “Unc’ Edinburg’s Drowndin’”.

There were sermons, chalk talks and scientific demonstrations by lesser personalities.   A “Hungarian orchestra” gave daily concerts, and several large bands appeared from time to time.   Four leading manufacturers of fireworks produced striking displays in competition for the “Chautauqua championship” and a $1,000 prize.

Marion C. Kiser is pictured below.....



July 4, 1888, was selected as the appropriate day upon which to open the Chautauqua grounds.  The featured event being a barbeque.   President  Kiser was slated for an address of welcome.   Successful businessman, sterling citizen and civic leader though he was, [Kiser] was no public speaker nor did he profess to be.  Born and reared on a Fulton County (old Campbell) farm, he had had limited educational advantages.   As a young man he had lived at Powder Springs, not far from Salt Springs, and had, in fact, begun his mercantile career there in a store owned by two older brothers, W.J. and M.P. Kiser [His Atlanta store was located at the corner of Pryor and Wall Streets].

Henry W. Grady, Jr., and his young friend and future [son-in-law], Eugene R. black, were ticket-takers upon the occasion of the Chautauqua opening.   Both recalled an incident in connection with President Kiser’s address of welcome.

The speech had been written out in advance by Grady, but when Kiser rose he fumbled around in his pocket without being able to find the manuscript.  Finally, he looked out upon the crowd and began hesitatingly by saying, “Right down thar is whar I used to hunt foxes.”

Not being able to think of any further extemporaneous remarks he turned to those closest to him and asked, “Whar’s Grady?”
The ‘Constitution’ of the next morning reported that “President Kiser’s speech was a model of good sense and good humor, well and briefly expressed.  It was just such a sensible talk as was to be expected from so sensible a man.”
The Chuatauqua’s largest crowd assembled on August 28 to hear the closing address by its impresario, Grady, on the subject of ‘Cranks, Croakers, and Creditors’.   The “cranks” were identified as those who started the enterprise, the “croakers” , the fault-finders who predicted failure, and the “creditors” those whose patience and cooperation enabled the Chautauqua to weather a successful season.
  The primary purpose of the Chautauqua was the diffusion of knowledge.  Grady believed so firmly in this objective he personally advanced $5,000 to complete the buildings and $2,500 towards making up a deficit on the teacher’s salaries.

This is the front gate of the Piedmont Chatauqua

Certainly the idea for the Chautauqua in Atlanta was sound, though the directors erred in locating it so far from the city - because some of the backers happened to own land there. In spite of this handicap, however, the Piedmont Chautauqua continued for many years to carry on the work Grady had started.

Garrett’s main source regarding his Piedmont Chautauqua section was Raymond Nixon’s biography of Grady titled Henry W. Grady:  Spokesman of the New South.  Garrett refers to Eugene R. Black as Grady’s brother-in-law, but other sources including an obituary state Black married Grady’s daughter.

Sunday, June 17, 2012

Mr. Geer and the Granite

I know it’s easy to fuss about the downtown business district in Douglasville…..some of the buildings are crumbling away and many remain empty, but the buildings are protected.  The buildings aren’t going to disappear from one day to the next unless some act of nature occurs or without many people knowing about it first.

It’s a different story regarding our late 19th century to turn-of-the-century homes.   With the exception of the Cultural Arts Center our older homes are all privately owned and have no historic designation.   It’s a personal choice regarding National Register status, and many owners don’t want to follow the criteria to keep the status. I certainly understand this, but so many our earliest homes are gone….taken down for one reason or another over the years and replaced with other buildings or blankets of asphalt.

The homes that remain are treasures.  Many of the people I meet who live in Douglasville’s  oldest homes realize the importance their residence holds within our collective history, but so many other citizens don’t realize, know or even care.  

My hope is by educating more and more people regarding these structures –who lived in them and their contribution to Douglasville history - we can make more people begin to realize the importance of preserving and saving some of our older structures.     
One important home sits at the corner of Colquitt and Strickland.

It’s easy to drive right past it without much notice mainly because a business has taken over the former home.  There are no flowers or furniture on the porch or toys to signal someone lives there, but for over half a century the structure was a home.

This home was built by M.E. Geer during the first decade of the 20th century though today it is home to Douglas County Resource Alliance – an organization that advocates for and provides services to individuals with developmental disabilities.

Mr. Geer’s grandson, Richard Geer Morgan, has been in touch with me and has advised his grandfather was never called by his legal first name – Major.  If anything besides “Mr. Geer”, it was “M.E. Geer” or “Ernest Geer”.

Mr. Geer was born in Belton, South Carolina which is in the Anderson area.   On April 23, 1902 an issue of the Anderson Intelligencer stated….There was a reunion of the Geer family at the residence of Mrs. Mary Geer in this town, Sunday, April 20th, at which were present her children and their families as follows:  President John M. Geer of the Easley Cotton Mills and family, D. Aaron Geer, merchant of this place,….. M. Earnest Geer merchant of this place and Professor Ben E. Geer, Furman.

According to Ben E.Geer his mother told him and his brothers that they needed to move out of Anderson since they could not make anything of themselves raising cotton.  According to Geer, “she instilled in her sons the ambition to do something,” and this ambition is evidenced by the fact that four of her sons grew up to be cotton mill presidents.

By 1907 Earnest Geer was no longer a merchant in Anderson.  Textile World Record (volume 34) advises he had taken a position as vice president and manager of the Lois Cotton Mill in Douglasville under a section titled “New Mill Construction”.   By taking the position in Douglasville Geer had followed his mother’s advice and joined what would become the family business…of sorts.   

John Mattison Geer was president of Easley Cotton Mills in Easley, South Carolina – a 68 acre complex that today is protected by National Register status.  His brother Ben took over for John in 1911 when he became ill and passed away.     Later, in 1933 Ben E. Geer returned to Furman University where he had been a professor and took over as president of the college.

Getting back to the house on Strickland Street….. it seems that while the cotton mill was being built and during the process of digging a well on the property a vein of granite was discovered.   The granite was extracted and cut into blocks.   Ernest Geer was in the process of building his home on Strickland Street and needed a foundation.   

You guessed it….the granite from the mill site became the foundation for the Geer home.   As soon as I read Mr. Geer’s grandson’s e-mail advising me of this I couldn’t wait to head over there to the house and see it for myself.   

I began snapping pictures as soon as I got out of the car, and then remembered I was on private property.
I walked into the office, and handed the folks there my business card and asked, “Did you know the foundation of this home came from the cotton mill property?”

I’m sure they thought I was crazy……but they were very gracious and I was happy to discover there were employees who did realize they worked in a home with some history behind it.  

They allowed me to walk around on the first floor and take pictures. 

The details of the home were fantastic from the main hall with the staircase….

A lovely window seat in one of the rooms….

and these very unique folding doors off the main hall opening up to the various rooms on each side of the house.  There were three panels and the doors looked like they could fold back on each other.

While it was very evident the home has a foundation of granite the home also has front steps fashioned from the same granite.  

Yes, it seems Ernest Geer didn’t really have a choice regarding his profession and found himself in Douglasville where he would manage our cotton mill into the 1930s, but unfortunately, the Depression was too much and eventually the mill was sold to what would become a string of owners through the 1970s.   
Mr. Geer’s grandson tells me the people of Douglasville had confidence in his grandfather, however.   He stayed on in town raising his family and even served as a Justice of the Peace following World War II.

I'm going to keep M. Ernest Geer's name on my mind as I continue to research Douglas County history including Sentinel and county records research.   I'm sure I'll be writing about him again real soon!

Wednesday, June 13, 2012


An email from the Douglasville Convention and Visitor's Bureau rolled across my email screen earlier this week.   It said, “Join in the Juneteenth Celebration featuring entertainment, culture, and fun for the entire family!”

The celebration will occur this Friday and Saturday…..June 15-16…. in downtown Douglasville and is sponsored by the Black Education Historical Exhibit or BEHE.

An opening reception will be held Friday evening, June 15 at the Downtown Conference Center at 6:15 p.m. featuring Tuskegee Airman John Stewart.   Tickets are $10 each and can be obtained at the Douglasville Welcome Center.

Look for entertainment, arts & craft vendors, children’s activities, health screenings, senior bingo and more at O’Neal Plaza this Saturday….June 16th.  The event is free and open to the public.

You can find out more about Douglasville’s Juneteenth Celebration at the official website.

But many may be asking….exactly what is Juneteenth?

The day is actually recognized as a state holiday or observance in 41 states…including Georgia.

The Juneteenth website states, “Juneteenth is the oldest nationally celebrated commemoration of the ending of slavery in the United States.   From its Galveston, Texas origin in 1865, the observance of June 19th as … Emancipation Day has spread across the United States and beyond. “

Place the words June for the month and nineteenth for the date together and you come up with the name “Juneteenth”.

Of course, if you dig down deep and attempt to recall what you were taught regarding the Civil War in school you know Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation was issued on September 22, 1862.   The proclamation was an executive order that proclaimed those who were living under slavery in the states considered to be in rebellion were free.  

The Proclamation went into effect January, 1863 but for most of the slaves in the South there was little difference in their life.   Though many knew about the proclamation and many were given their freedom there were many more who didn’t know about it across the Confederacy.

Close to 2,000 federal troops reached Galveston, Texas on June 18, 1865.  The story goes that General Gordon Granger stood on the steps of Galveston’s Ashton Villa and read the contents of the Emancipation Proclamation and the celebration that began afterward is considered the first official Juneteenth.

Why are we worried about slavery and celebrating something like Juneteenth when Douglas County and Douglasville were created in the 1870s…..after the Civil War?   

Someone has actually said to me, ”There were no slaves here, so what’s the point with any sort of celebration?”

I will agree that slavery was no longer an institution when the City of Douglasville formed in 1875 just as it had ended in 1870 when Douglas County was formed, however, Douglas County didn’t appear as if by magic….it was created from an already existing jurisdiction.   

We have to look towards the former Campbell County to get direction regarding slavery in this area.   The land falling within Douglas Country’s borders today was once part of Campbell County.   The 1840 census for Campbell County indicates a total population of 5,372 with 842 of those listed as slaves.  

An entry from the Empire State….a newspaper in Spalding County…..for January 16, 1856 discusses one of Robert Jackson’s runaway slaves from Palmetto.    Mr. Jackson is offering $70 reward stating that the runaway slave named Phillip had frequently been in the counties of Carroll and Campbell without consent of his owner, with a forged pass.

I can’t help but wonder if Phillip had loved one he was willing to risk his life for in order to see time and time again.

This link shares a will written by Gideon Whitted who lived in Campbell County and left his slaves to various family members.   Mr. Whitted leaves his daughter Mary Gwynn a certain slave by the name of Peter….another daughter, Jemima King received two slaves…..a girl named Jinny about eight years old, and a boy by the name of Henry about nine years old.

When I was still in the classroom I taught eight, nine and ten year old children.   I can’t imagine any of my former students being willed to another human being…..never to have any formal education…..never to have the right to aspire to be anything other than a slave.

Men such as Judge Bowden, and Ezekiel Polk lived in parts of Campbell County that would become Douglas County, and they both owned slaves.  Many citizens of Douglas County today can claim some of those very slaves as their ancestors.

I’m not sure about you but it has always given me pause to read how humans were treated as property, tracked like animals, and actually inherited like furniture or farm equipment. 
I welcome a day to recognize the emancipation of slaves in the United States.   I welcome a day to celebrate and educate.

Slavery existed and it most certainly was a part of Douglas County’s history making  a Juneteeth recognition not only appropriate, but necessary!

Happy Juneteenth!

Monday, June 11, 2012

Contentious Politics

I’ve been looking through several old newspaper clippings this week concerning Douglasville and one thing is clear…..interesting political seasons are nothing new….no matter the office involved.

The following article titled Gartrell at Douglasville…The doughty general refuses to divide time with a political opponent appeared in The Atlanta Constitution on September 21, 1882.   This article or one similar to it would have appeared in the local paper…..The Weekly Star and would then be submitted to the Atlanta paper similar to the way news stories are handed off via the Associated Press today. 

The Atlanta Constitution regularly carried items involving Douglas County and Douglasville back then.   Yes, I know it’s hard to believe since we aren’t mentioned nowadays unless the situation involves scandal, murder, floods,  mayoral vetoes, fires or some other sensationalized story.  

We must remember, however, back in the 1880s the leading movers and shakers in Douglasville were fast friends with Henry W. Grady, the editor of The Atlanta Constitution, and many of Douglasville’s families had close ties to the business elite in Atlanta.   For this very reason alone Douglasville was mentioned…..and mentioned often. 

I’m presenting the contents of the clipping below in italics with my notes of explanation as well to help set the context of the event. 

Yesterday was a lively time in this usually quiet town [Douglasville].  It had been announced for several days that General Gartrell would speak here on his claims to the governorship, and it was also well known that D. Pike Hill, of Atlanta, would be present to reply to him.

The Georgia governor’s race in1882 was an interesting one pitting two former Confederates against one another.

General Lucious Gartrell
What’s interesting regarding this article is the fact that General Gartrell’s actual opponent was not present to counter his remarks.   D. Pike Hill was not running for governor.   He was a well known Atlanta lawyer who was very active in Democratic politics.   I assume he was in Douglasville to represent the Georgia Democratic Party, and to speak for the actual candidate….Alexander H. Stephens, the very well known vice president of the Confederacy.

The newspaper article continues:

The prospect of hearing a lively discussion brought a good crowd to the town, and by 11 o’clock there must have been nearly four hundred people in and around the courthouse.

Those people would have been gathered on the same grounds where the Old Courthouse Museum sits in downtown Douglasville today.   To date I have not located any pictures of the building that would have existed in 1882.   It was constructed in 1880 and is described as a two-story brick courthouse.   The building was abandoned in 1884 and taken down due to faulty bricks and mortar.  Apparently the building was literally crumbling and was a danger to citizens.

The fact that approximately four hundred people had gathered to listen to General Gartrell is interesting since a ride to town wasn’t as easy as it is now.  Even if the majority of the people who had gathered lived in the downtown area this would mean nearly half the town turn out since the population of Douglasville hovered around one thousand people during the 1880s.

 General Gartrell refused to divide time with Mr. Hill, saying he would discuss in this campaign with Mr. Stephens only.  Mr. Hill then demanded that the general should tell the people he meant to speak.  This General Gartrell did, and then proceeded to make his regulation stump speech.  He met with little encouragement, and was rewarded with little applause. 

At first read General Gartrell really comes off as a rude individual, however, I’m sure it was frustrating for him to campaign against a man who decided to run his campaign in what is described by historians as “casual.”

Stephens only spoke in larger cities such as Macon, Columbus, Augusta, and of course…..Atlanta.  He was well known and well liked.   Stephens had served the state of Georgia as a United States Representative prior to the war, and served the citizens of Georgia in Congress during Reconstruction as well.

Alexander H. Stephens
However, for all his frailty Alexander Stephens was considered one of the strongest men in the South mainly due to his intelligence, judgment, and eloquence. 

General Gartrell wa no slouch either…..Prior to the war Lucious Gartrell had served in the Georgia House of Representatives.   He spent his time during the war bouncing between the battlefields and serving in the Confederate Congress.

He helped formed the Seventh Regiment of the Georgia Volunteer Infantry where he saw action at First Manassas.   He was approached as early as 1863 to run for governor, but declined.   After the war….in 1870….Gartrell had his sights on the U.S. Senate, but when he found out Alexander Stephens planned to run for the seat he stepped aside.  Even then he knew Stephens would be a formidable candidate to run against.

When he had finished Mr. Hill arose and said he would say some very plain things about General Gartrell, and was sorry he could not stay to hear them.  The general went outside the courthouse, ….where he lingered about…..  He then came in and heard all Mr. Hill’s speech, which may be termed a “rattler.”  He frequently brought a hearty cheer showing that he had the sentiment of the people with him.  

After he concluded R.A. Massey made a few remarks in reply, but Mr. Hill corrected some of his statements in a very amusing way, and threw in another good stroke. 

R.A. Massey would be Judge Robert A. Massey.   He was involved in politics and business here in Douglasville as an attorney.   By 1888, he was also serving as postmaster.

The crowd then dispersed to discuss the events of the day and the probable majority for Stephens in Douglas.   General Gartrell had some personal friends here, but the mass of the people prefer Mr. Stephens for governor, and will so express themselves on the fourth of October at the polls.

In fact, General Gartrell only carried eleven of Georgia’s one hundred and thirty seven counties that October.   Thomas A. Martin who wrote the book Atlanta and Its Builders:  A Comprehensive History of the Gate City explains, “…Though [Gartrell] felt that  he had little hope of success at the polls, it was an evidence of [a] fidelity to principle that he was willing to oppose such an idol of the people as [Stephens], and he accepted his defeat with heroic  magnanimity, knowing that it was to an appropriate sense of fitness on the part of the people of Georgia that the career of Mr. Stephens should be closed with gubernatorial honors.”

As for Governor Alexander H. Stephens…..he finally succumbed to his frail health and died after being in office for fourth months.

I’ll end with a little interesting fact I picked up from Atlanta and Its Environs……Gartrell had lived since the 1850s in a grand home in Atlanta on Decatur Street between Jackson and Yonge Streets.  In 1893 following Gartrell’s death the home was sold……the new owner was none other than Douglasville’s own Dr. T.R. Whitley who I have written about here and here.

General Gartrell is one of a handful of Confederate generals buried at Atlanta's Oakland Cemetery.

Friday, June 8, 2012

A Bridge to the Past

One of the commitments I made to myself when I began researching and writing about the history of Douglas County and the City of Douglasville was I wouldn’t publish anything until I was certain that I had done everything I could to verify my resources and not just publish what could possibly be family folklore as historical fact.

I would suspect part of that train of thought on my behalf has to do with the fact that early on in my online writing foray at History Is Elementary I tried to dispel as many myths and incorrect thought processes regarding historical events as I could. 

It’s so very easy for folklore to become fact…..

For example, one of my first attempts at dispelling historical myths had to do with George Washington in my article George, We Hardly Knew Ye,  and later I attempted to bust a few myths regarding Christopher Columbus, and I even tried to clear up the  July 4th or the July 2nd debate.

So….through the process of attempting to publish historical facts regarding local history I end up sitting on a wealth of information most of the time.  I hang on to bits and pieces of Douglas County history just hoping I’ll run across the right person, the right resource, and the right web link that will verify an event, the actions of certain people, or particular place.

I’ve had more than a few longtime Douglas County residents tell me about a wooden bridge that spanned the railroad track in downtown Douglasville providing a pedestrian walkway from Broad Street over to Strickland Street. 

I had been told the bridge crossed over the track at the highest point which would have been on the western edge of courthouse square. 

I had also been told the wooden walkway was torn down in the 1930s.

When I inquired with the City of Douglasville I was given this image:

Courtesy of the City of Douglasville:   A bridge that spanned the railroad  from Broad Street to Strickland

I held onto the picture and waited…..

I found it mentioned in  a couple of sources but the story involved still has to be verified, so I waited some more…….

And then I read an article published in the Atlanta Constitution on May 5, 1888 in an article titled “Douglasville’s Situation – Its People, Its Business, and Its Future Prospects.”

A section of the article states “…near the center of this town, a bridge arched like a rainbow, spans the railroad.  From the top of the bridge, one gets a good view of the city and the surrounding country.  The railroad passes through the town straight as an arrow.  Facing this road on one side the stores and shops are arranged, some twenty to thirty in number.  Scattered around in all directions are the dwellings, many of them are attractive homes, surrounded by extensive gardens, adorned with trees, shrubbery and flowers, indicating refinement and taste.

This blurb in the newspaper verifies several things for me.   A bridge existed, and it crossed the over the track.   It existed as early as 1888, and the bridge in the above picture is more than likely the bridge that crossed the railroad tracks since it does indeed arch up like the article said.   The location of the bridge is fairly pinpointed since the article states it’s near the center of town.  It seems to me the center of town would be close to the spot where the old skint chestnut tree was located….which would have been just west of courthouse square.

I’d love to see a picture of the entire bridge….a different angle or viewpoint.   If I remember correctly this picture is also published in Earl Albertson’s Portraits of Douglas, and I believe the people are identified.   I’ll check on that in the next few days. 

If you have any information regarding the bridge please leave a comment or contact me via email.

Friday, June 1, 2012

More Cotton Mill Pictures

I'm very grateful to Kari Osborne for sending me these images of the cotton mill.   They were taken a couple of years ago and include images of the interior.   I'm including a few here.....and the entire set on the "Every Now and Then" Facebook page.  

You can "like" the Facebook page and see updates, pictures and links roll across your Facebook wall by clicking the "like" button found on the left sidebar of this blog. 

As always if you need to see a closer view of the image you can click on it to isolate it on a page...then hit your "back" button to return to this post.  

Also.....these pictures along with everything else on this website is copyrighted.....if you need a copy of something send me an email.   If you quote any of my text please reference my name, the website name and/or the weblink. are breaking the law.

This first image is the east side of the building.

This is the backside of the building taken from the west side.  Notice the zig-zag walls.   Years ago the windows were removed and bricked in, but you can make out where they were.   High windows were key at the turn of the century to give mill workers enough light to do their jobs.....there was no electricity at first.

Looking at this interior shot I can understand why those who wandered around inside over the years told me it was vast and creepy.....

 This is taken on the front side of the building....more zig-zag walls.

Love this shot of Kari's.....You can see the outbuildings and the water tower.   Today the water tower is all that remains.

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