Tuesday, January 21, 2014

Rumors of Coal



What comes to mind when I throw the word “rumor” out?

It seems that your response would have something to do with your own personal experiences concerning rumors. I think if we were all honest we would have to admit we might have had a hand in beginning a rumor, most certainly in sharing a rumor, and more than likely been subjected to a rumor about ourselves no matter if it was the truth or not.
It should be no surprise the impact rumors can have on society is studied quiet heavily by the psychology-types among us. A report titled A Psychology of Rumor was published by Robert Knapp in 1944. His study was based on over one thousand rumors during World War II that were printed in the Boston Herald’s “Rumor Clinic” column.

Knapp determined there were three types of rumors. The pipe dream rumor reflects public desires and wished-for outcomes. A bogie or fear rumor reflects feared outcomes, and a wedge is a driving rumor that is meant to interfere with group loyalty or relationships between individuals.
It seems I’m constantly running across rumors of the pipe dream type regarding the early days of Douglas County. Movers and shakers were constantly putting the word out regarding how wonderful the living conditions were here, and sometimes they stretched the truth a bit.

This past summer one of my Sentinel columns dealt with a publicity piece that Joseph S. James, the first mayor of Douglasville wrote about the county.  Some of James’ claims included his promise that, “There are neither fleas nor mosquitos here, and the flies are less numerous than elsewhere. Snakes are scarce; and then again there is hardly any mud; owing to the character of the soil and the rolling nature of the surface; the hardest and longest rains scarcely leave a disagreeable trace for more than a few hours.”
Hmm, I’ve experienced plenty of those things here, and I live in an era where the county is more settled than when Mr. James was a prominent figure. 

Pipe dream?  Most certainly.
Of course, we forgive Mr. James for his comments because he was attempting to get folks to move here. He wanted the county to thrive for his own personal gain as well as for other folks to be successful, too.

All of this brings me to a major rumor that was bandied about concerning Douglas County in 1887. By that time Douglas County was firmly established being a young adult at 17 years of age.
On February 4, 1887 the Atlanta Constitution published an article titled “Is It a Coal Bed?”

Yes!  Coal had been found in Douglas County. 
To be more exact it had been rumored in Atlanta the day before that anthracite coal had been discovered near Austell.  To be very precise the piece of coal was found when workmen were building a bridge over Sweetwater Creek near Salt Springs (now Lithia Springs).  Someone spotted the lump of coal in the bed of the creek.

The reporter with the Constitution interviewed S.S. Marsh of the firm Moore, Marsh & Company.  S.S. Marsh was the son of E.W. Marsh who along with his partners had first leased and then purchased the springs and would be the owner of the Sweetwater Park Hotel and Piedmont Chautauqua.
Wouldn’t it be a huge find if coal was discovered on or near their proposed resort property?

Wouldn’t that make the property more valuable and more enticing for future investors?

Apparently for a few days in February, 1887 the rumor of coal created quite a sensation here in Douglas County as well as Atlanta. It was determined the coal was of good anthracite quality. There were further rumors that a syndicate might form and the property would be developed to extract the coal.
Of course, Marsh and others that were interviewed tried to give enough information to keep the rumors flying, but constantly stated they “couldn’t say” when asked for specifics.

Rumors grew to include a natural gas find. Petroleum was mentioned.
A few days later on February 17th more mentions were made in the Atlanta paper.  A blurb stated, “It is claimed that Jacks Hill in Douglas County is full of coal.”

Further down the column the snippet in “daily news briefs” quotes the Douglasville Star stating, “Not having seen the coal ourselves, we are not prepared to say what is there and we wait developments. We trust that it may turn out to be a valuable bed. But since this excitement has begun we have talked to three different men, who say that they can show the outcropping coal in several places along Sweetwater Creek. One of them told us he could go to a spot eight miles from Douglasville and get a wagon load of coal in an hour by digging it out of the ground. We are not at liberty at present to give the names of these gentlemen, but they are responsible men and are considered reliable in all things."
At this point the history of the coal find here in Douglas County goes a little flat. There are no further mentions of coal that year in the papers, and to date I’ve not seen any mention of a coal syndicate being formed.

Was the whole thing just a well-placed rumor that served its purpose and then quietly went away?
What about that piece of coal?  What happened to it?

I have to wonder since it was just found in the creek bed much like a gold-find was it conveniently placed in the creek for the workmen to find?  

The picture with this post is a vintage photo of Sweetwater Creek at Holly Bend.

Tuesday, January 14, 2014

Inman and Marsh - The Men behind the Sweetwater Park Hotel

A few investors were behind the magnificent Sweetwater Park Hotel in Lithia Springs, but the main two were Edwin W. Marsh and Samuel M. Inman.

I felt it was time that I found out more about them.
Edwin W. Marsh is remembered primarily as an extremely successful dry goods merchant.  He was born in North Carolina in 1824 yet spent time for several years as a merchant in Chattanoga, Tennessee. He transferred his business to Atlanta in 1863 when he was 39.  Besides his efforts at the dry goods trade, Marsh also had controlling interest in the newspaper, Southern Confederacy, which relocated to Macon during the Union occupation.  Following the war, Marsh’s dry goods store was the first one to re-open in the city.  He developed an extremely prosperous business and invested heavily in real estate.
I could go on and on regarding his accomplishments as there are many…..including the first cotton factory established in North Georgia at Trion.
He was unbelievably wealthy, so it’s no surprise he would invest his time and dollars in resort in Douglas County.
I've scoured the Internet looking for a picture of E.W. Marsh, but have yet to find one. He was laid to rest at Oakland Cemetery in Atlanta. Photos of his ornate mausoleum (below) can be found all over the place.
 
Samuel M. Inman was born in Tennessee to a wealthy planter family. He attended college at Princeton, and fought in the Civil War. Like many, the Inman family was hit hard by the war and found it necessary to relocate. They headed to Georgia where they acted as bank agents, merchants, and a cotton factoring concern called the S.W. Inman & Son Cotton House with his father.



Like many former planters, the Inman family took the changes the New South brought head on and went into business. Eventually, the Inman family became very influential and powerful again. Samuel M. Inman’s brother was John H. Inman, the head of the company Inman, Swann, & Co. of New York and president of the West Point Terminal Company which controlled 11,000 miles of track and $4,000,000 in steamships. Another brother, Hugh T. Inman, owned the  Kimball House Hotel in Atlanta.
Samuel M. Inman entered into a partnership with Joel Hurt in the 1880s to form the East Atlanta Land Company. Their main venture was to develop Inman Park, the beautiful Atlanta neighborhood that still exists today.  A second venture included the Atlanta & Edgewood Street Railroad. While today we think of Inman Park as a downtown neighborhood, it was originally outside of town. The railroad provided a way in and out of town for residents, a huge selling point.

By 1889, Inman was involved with the Inman System, a group of nearly all of the railroads across the southeast. He was also involved with the beginnings of the Georgia School of Technology or Georgia Institute of Technology as it is known today. His put up his own money to get the ball rolling plus was able to secure other money donated by investors and the city of Atlanta.
At one point it is thought Inman was worth around $750,000 to $1,000,000. He was on many boards and gave much of his money to charity.

Like Marsh, it’s no wonder that Samuel M. Inman had a few extra dollars to invest in a resort hotel in Lithia Springs.
They didn't even miss the money.

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

Five Reasons Why I Delve into Douglas County's History


Here I sit patiently waiting for the first blog post for 2014 to come to me. I’m in my office I have set up for myself over the last few months. It’s still a bit junky.  I’m still trying to decorate, organize, and work all at the same time, but finally I’m here at the desk facing the front windows with the afternoon sun splashing over my desk providing a bit of warmth on such a frigid day.  I sit and wait.

The cursor on the computer screen blinks out its hello as if to say, “I’m here waiting for you. <blink> When are you going to type? <blink> I’m ready. Are you? <blink> Hello?<blink> <blink> <blink>……It's as annoying as a little yapping dog.
Sometimes the things I write are meticulously planned out for weeks.  For example, I already know what I’m writing about for the Sentinel column for the next couple of weeks.  However there are times when I don’t have a clue until right before my deadline, and then it hits like a ton of bricks and the words flow from my fingertips so fast I fear I might drop a few. Then there are times like today where my mind is everywhere all at once, and nothing in my notes is raising its hand begging to be noticed.

So, maybe it’s time for a bit of gratitude. Perhaps I should take the time here at the beginning of a new year to examine what it is I do, and why I do it.
Sometimes even I question the whole thing.

I exhaust myself researching Douglas County history because it’s rich and vibrant. The county was formed in 1870 at the cusp of all things Old South and as all things New South was revving up. I liken it to the “perfect storm” of ingredients for a New South town during Reconstruction.  I know of very few counties and county seats such as Douglasville where you can examine the New South philosophy put into play as both the county and town were developing. We have something very special here.
I do what I do because I love uncovering a great story.   Finding things out piece by piece, suddenly understanding how they all dovetail and fit together in order to create the larger picture – that’s what I  find captivating about Douglas County history.  I’ve been teaching and/or writing about history in general for several years, but now to have “my own little laboratory of history” to work with, that’s familiar yet not familiar – that’s what keeps me going.

I delve into the history of Douglas County in order to add to the historical record.  I don’t research the history, visit with people, and write anything in order to replace any of the historical record that has already been published. As my blog tagline states and as the heading on the Facebook page indicates my number one aim is to bring Douglas County history to a 21st Century audience. Social media can be a nightmare if not handled properly, but I like to think that it’s a great tool for educating people. It enables people of all ages to see the history, read the history, and most importantly to share the history.  What better time is it than now when we can ride the wave of nostalgia that so many in the Baby Boomer generation are feeling as they reconnect on sites like Facebook or Google +, and then share what they re-discover with their children and grandchildren.
The backstory would be just too much fun to miss out on.  The situations I find myself in during the process, the personalities I meet, and the stories surrounding the history are almost as entertaining as the history itself.  I wish I could share some of them. Believe it or not there is a mad dance called the “politics of history” where at times you most court the folks who control the history in order to access and share the history with the folks who actually own it. The owners in this case being the citizens of Douglas County. 

I research Douglas County history because I’m a bit selfish.  As many may already know I grew up in Red Oak which is a little community in South Fulton County between College Park and Fairburn.  It is my dear sweet home. My strong connection to Douglas County history stems from  two important factors. The first being the fact that I have lived here in this county for close to 30 years, while the second factor has to do with Red Oak itself. Red Oak, like Douglas County was once part of Campbell County, so all of the history I learned as a girl growing up in Red Oak from longtime residents just created the historical bridge for me to cross into Douglas County history. 
It seems that it was my course to follow all along, and I plan to stay on that course for a long time to come.  

Tuesday, November 5, 2013

Book Review: The 100 Day War: The Western Front of the Atlanta Campaign



Over the last few days I've had the honor to read Ray Henderson's latest work titled The 100 Day War: The Western Front of the Atlanta Campaign. Ray is a local historian, and the author of the much celebrated book The History of the Pony Club regarding Carroll County.

My initial reaction to The 100 Day War is pleasure. What a great resource for anyone who loves reading about the Civil War! My second reaction involves gratitude for the amount of research and writing that it took to put together all of the resources Mr. Henderson presents.

The book examines the days from July to November, 1864 when the Civil War was front and center in Campbell County (now Douglas) including mentions of Salt Springs, Dark Corner, Villa Rica and Campbellton.

Each chapter of the book zeroes in on just a few specific days giving the reader a broader picture of what was happening and when. Photographs of the military leaders and locations are included along with detailed maps.

Not only does each chapter include a narrative introduction to put things in perspective, Mr. Henderson also includes diary entries from Confederate and Union soldiers who were on the ground, as well as all of the dispatches sent back and forth between the leaders in charge. I was also pleased to see pictures of items found over the years that were left behind by the soldiers including canteens, stirrups and saddle buckles.

This book answers so many questions regarding events that occurred in Campbell (Douglas), Carroll, and Coweta counties during the war including:

*What really happened around the Bullard-Henley-Sprayberry house during July, 1864? Is a Union soldier really buried in the family cemetery that is visible along Highway 92?

*What part did the Dog River play in the movement of soldiers during the 100 days?

*Which families in the area made claims with the Southern Claims Commission due to the Union army confiscating property as they moved through the area?

*Why did the Union soldiers believe the Confederates on the Campbellton side of the Chattahoochee have more troops than they actually had?

*Why did Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America visit Palmetto in September, 1864?

Ray Henderson will be on hand reading sections of his book and signing copies this Sunday, November 10th from 1 to 4 p.m. at Pine Mountain Gold Museum at Stockmar Park located at 1881 Stockmar Road in Villa Rica.

You can also pick up a copy of the book at Douglasville Books located at 7191 Stewart Parkway in Douglasville. The phone number is 770-949-4363.

Hope to see you Sunday!!!

Friday, September 20, 2013

An Afternoon at the Museum

This column first appeared in the Douglas County Sentinel on May 5, 2013.

I took a little time Tuesday to visit the Old Courthouse Museum for the “Keep Calm and Shop Local” Networking event.  All of the museum rooms were open for browsing, and I wanted to make sure I checked out the new and improved exhibit regarding town father Ephraim Pray. 
Ephraim Pray is one of Douglas County’s earliest settlers arriving in the area as early as 1828.  Along with a few other early settlers he holds the distinction of being a man who lived in three different counties – Carroll, Campbell and Douglas – without having to move even one stick of furniture.  County borders shifted twice during his lifetime.

When Pray moved to this area he purchased nine land lots on both sides of today’s Highway 5 at the Dog River Bridge.  He cleared the land himself and built a cabin.  He dammed the Trout Creek/Dog River and using the water power from the river he operated a flour and grist mill as well as a saw mill.  He also farmed, and the second floor of his mill was used by two male slaves, as well as by Pray himself, to make furniture.
Pray donated twelve acres for the purpose of building a church that would become Pray's Mill Baptist Church. His only stipulation was the church had to remain Baptist or the land would revert back to the Pray family. The new congregation wanted to name the new church for Pray, but he refused. Of course, they ended up naming the church for his mill instead.  Pray become a constituent member of the church and attended there until he passed away.

During Reconstruction, Ephraim Pray was one of several men who were tired of having to travel so far to Campbellton to conduct business. They wanted a new county.  In 1870, Pray traveled to Atlanta to listen to the state legislature approve the act for Douglas County. He was named one of the first county commissioners by the Georgia General Assembly, and he is one of the few charter citizens of Douglas County.
The new museum exhibit contains dozens of artifacts evidencing Mr. Pray’s life donated by Pray family member Joe Phillips. There are pictures, farm equipment, furniture Mr. Pray made, and more personal items such as pipes and a fiddle evidencing a man who lived during the Nineteenth century.


Museum volunteers have spent the last few months organizing the artifacts into an entertaining and educational exhibit. I encourage everyone to visit the Old Courthouse Museum at 6754 Broad Street in the historic downtown district. They are open from 1 p.m. to 5 p.m. every Tuesday and Thursday.

Stop by and see what they have to offer.  You won’t be disappointed!

Wednesday, September 18, 2013

"Doing" History

Last night a group of people joined me for a talk about the Sweetwater Park Hotel and the Piedmont Chautauqua at the Douglas County library on Selman Drive.

I was amazed at the turnout. It’s great to know so many people are interested in Lithia Springs’ vibrant past. 
Many showed up with articles they have collected over the years – an actual fruit bowl from the hotel, dish fragments, spoons, Bowden Lithia Springs water bottles, post card images and stories of playing on the ruins and living on the historic property as children.

Afterwards I was invited to dinner with a group who attended the talk, and they all shared more memories of Lithia Springs.
Some say I “do” history through my research and writing.

No….that’s not true. 
While I believe what I do has some value, the real part of “doing” history has to do with the folks who showed up last night, as well as folks who participate with my Douglas County history page on Facebook - groups of people who gather to discuss, who share, and who attempt to remember and pass those memories along.

One of the things I shared in my presentation at the library was this image from the Atlanta Constitution during the Fall of 1884. It’s an advertisement placed by John C. Bowden to lease the springs.

 
The ad states:

I will receive proposals to lease my springs, formally known as Salt Springs, 18 miles from Atlanta, near the East Tennessee, et al. and the Georgia Pacific Rail Road for a term of ten years or more to include in said lease from 30-50 acres of land around the springs.
The spring yields 4,000 gallons of water every twelve hours and is situated in the midst of a prosperous and picturesque  country, and can be made one of the finest resorts in North Georgia, and is a short ride from Atlanta.

The water is the best lithia water in the United States, and has made many remarkable cures. I refer to Mr. Elias Holcombe, J.C. Harris and J.L. Richmond, of Atlanta, Georgia and to Dr. Moncrief of Greensboro, Georgia and can give the names of hundreds of others who have been cured by the use of the water.
The water has been carefully analyzed by Dr. Pratt, one of the best chemists in Georgia.

The ad continued with Dr. Pratt’s analysis. The main part that stood out to me was this section per Dr. Pratt:
Note the unusual quantities of valuable medical constituents, viz. Chromide and Iodine…Lithium and Magnesia deserve careful notice.

The rest of Bowden’s ad to lease the springs continued:
Propositions for lease must be made in writing  and submitted to me by the 15th of October next.

Bowden advised propositions could be mailed to him, and that he would be available to show interested parties around the place.  He also indicated he reserved the right to select the bid that will pay him the best income for the springs, or to reject all the bids as he saw fit.
It was some time after that when the announcement was made in another article of the  paper advised that E.W. Marsh had leased the springs from Bowden with Bowden keeping the mineral rights……specifically E.W. Marsh & Son had leased the spring. 

The article went on to say, arrangements have been made to place the water on sale wherever there may be demand for it…., and during the fall and winter the water [had] been subjected to a severe test by a number of citizens of Atlanta, and that test [had] two results: 1. That the water can be transported and kept in barrels for a considerable period with no sensible deterioration of its qualities, and 2. That its effects after transportation are as remarkable as they are when drank at the spring.
There is a story that circulates that the first time the water actually came to the attention of anyone in Atlanta was via James A. Watson. He had business concerns in Atlanta, but frequently visited Douglasville to see his mother and other relatives. On one trip he fell ill and had to stay over at Bowden’s plantation home. During his stay he was given the water and credited it with his recovery. He left Bowden’s home carrying a jug of the water which he promptly had tested and shared its properties with his friend who happened to be E.W. Marsh.

So, the question I have is the Watson story merely an embellishment regarding how the springs were eventually leased and sold?  If Watson introduced Bowden to Marsh then why would Bowden need to advertise his desire to lease the springs?
I’ve had people tell me the Watson story is just some sort of historical myth, but you can’t totally discount it as “just a story” since Watson’s friend Marsh did indeed lease the springs resulting in broadening the reach Salt Springs/Lithia Springs had with the rest of the world.

Could it be Bowden wanted to see if he could get a better deal?  
Was he trying to get Mr. Marsh to increase his offer?

Bowden was certainly clear in his ad that he wanted the "best" deal.

Yes, “doing” history always involves discussing, sharing, remembering and passing along what you know to others, but it also involves questions – questions that may or may not ever be answered.

Folks who "do" history, however, love to debate the possible answers.

Friday, September 13, 2013

The Business of the Railroad

 
For many today, the railroad running through Douglasville might seem a little outdated and an inconvenience. The blast of the train's horn interrupt our conversations as we walk through O'Neal Plaza or while we have diner or lunch along Broad Street. The train no longer carries us to Atlanta or west into Alabama. It merely blocks traffic as folks attempt to head home to Hiram or Dallas. However, there was a time when the railroad was premier in our thoughts and had it not run through Douglasville our past, and therefore our future would have been very different.

By 1850, Atlanta already had several rail lines, but there was yet to be a line heading west, until the Georgia Western Railroad was chartered in 1854. The concern was incorporated by Richard Peters, Lemuel Grant, and other Atlanta businessmen.

Some sources state prior to the Civil War grading occurred from Atlanta to a point two miles west of Skint Chestnut/Douglasville, but I'm now a little skeptical of that since early railroad maps show the line passing through the southern portion of the county. There are stories that the right-of-way was used by farmers to move cattle from Birmingham to Atlanta for market. I haven't found any proof of this yet, but at any rate the Civil War interrupted the plans.

What I do know is that even after the war the western route for the railroad was still very much a point of discussion. Notice the map I have here courtesy of the University of Alabama Map Library.

You can clearly see a much different route out of Atlanta where the railroad would go through Carrollton and not Douglasville. Douglasville was not legally established until February of 1875 due to some legal entanglements, and an election that had to be held twice, but the town fathers continued to set up the town, so it's no surprise to me that Douglasville was on the 1873 map. Not only did the town fathers have to convince the folks of Douglas County that Douglasville should be the county seat, they also had to convince the railroad to lay tracks through town as well.

On July 12, 1873 a railroad meeting was held at Chapel Hill to discuss proposed routes and issues surrounding stock subscriptions. Three days later a larger group met in Douglasville to consider the prospect of the Georgia Western Railroad passing through the county with W.P. Strickland as the chair and A.S. Gorman as secretary.

A committee was set up to create resolutions for those at the meeting to consider. John F. Glover, Dr. Poole, Ezekiel Polk, Captain Whitley and G.W. McLarty were appointed to the committee. They went into another room to devise the resolutions, and while they did so John M. Edge entertained the crowd with what is described as his "fluent and impressive style describing the benefits to have the railroad pass through the county."

The committee came up with three resolutions which were read to the crowd and adopted. They were:

"Resolved - that the people of Douglas County want the Georgia Western Railroad; that the  right-of-way be given through the county; the road be the same width as allowed to other roads in this state.

Resolved -that we recommend the company to cross the Chattahoochee River below the mouth of Sweetwater Creek, thence coming out by the great water power known as the old Sweetwater Factory site and the Merchant Mills on that stream.

Resolved - that we are willing to subscribe stock under the form adopted at the railroad meeting at Chapel Hill on the 12th.

Railroad construction finally began eight years later in 1881. By that time the Georgia Western Railroad had become the Georgia Pacific, and fortunately, the final route included Douglasville.

The Weekly Star, Douglasville's paper at the time, advised on August 23, 1881, "On Tuesday, one hundred and twenty-five hands arrived here for the purpose of beginning work on the Georgia Pacific. Yesterday morning, they began preparing the graded portion of the railroad for the reception of crossties and iron. The men are from Virginia...This looks like business."

Business most certainly was the correct word!

This post first appeared in the Douglas County Sentinel, May 19, 2013.
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